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Published by Chez Pierre Mortier in Amsterdam, circa 1700, this "Theatre de la Guerre" (Theater of War) map showcases the intense battles raging in the Netherlands region between the time of the Franco-Dutch War (1672-1678) and the Spanish War of Succession (1701-1713).
This military map chronologically details the movements of the troops from one location to another from May 1690 through October 1693. The map also includes an explanation of remarks to navigate where French Troops, Dutch troops and major battle areas are located. It also notes heavily wooded areas. A scale of miles is also included.
The map is colored in outline with relief shown pictorially.
Franco-Dutch War, (1672–78), the second war of conquest by Louis XIV of France, whose chief aim in the conflict was to establish French possession of the Spanish Netherlands after having forced the Dutch Republic's acquiescence. The Third Anglo-Dutch War (1672–74) formed part of this general war.
After having signed (1670) the secret Treat of Dover with England against the Dutch, Louis mounted an invasion of the Dutch Republic in May 1672 that was supported by the British navy. The French were able to quickly occupy three of the seven Dutch provinces, but then the Dutch opened the dikes around Amsterdam, flooding a large area, and their army, under William III of Orange, rallied behind this “Water Line.” By autumn William had begun land operations against the French invaders. Meanwhile, the Dutch navy, under Admiral M.A. de Ruyter, managed to stave off attacking English and French fleets in battles off Sole Bay in 1672 and off Ostend and Kijkduin in 1673, each time frustrating an invasion of the republic. England then made peace with the Dutch in the Treaty of Westminster of February 1674. In 1673 Spain, the Holy Roman emperor, and Lorraine took the side of the Dutch against France, and so by the end of 1673 the French had been driven out of the Dutch Republic.
But from 1674 to 1678 the French armies, with Sweden as their only effective ally, managed to advance steadily in the southern (Spanish) Netherlands and along the Rhine, defeating the badly coordinated forces of the Grand Alliance with regularity. Eventually the heavy financial burdens of the war, along with the imminent prospect of England’s reentry into the conflict on the side of the Dutch, convinced Louis to make peace despite his advantageous military position. The resulting Treaties of Nijmegen (1678–79) between France and the Grand Alliance left the Dutch Republic intact and France generously aggrandized in the Spanish Netherlands.
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death in November 1700 of Charles II, who died without a direct heir. The closest heirs were members of the Austrian and French ruling families but union of an undivided Spanish Empire with either threatened the European balance of power.
Charles left his throne to Phillip of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV but on condition he renounce his claim to the French throne. The decision by Louis to ignore this led to war with the anti-French Grand Alliance whose candidate was Charles, the younger son of Emperor Leopold I.
By 1710, the war was deadlocked, Allied victories in the Low Countries and Italy offset by failure in Spain and unpopular in Britain due to its cost and lack of clear objectives. When Emperor Joseph I died in 1711, Charles succeeded him as Emperor; the British were equally opposed to a potential union of Spain and Austria and effectively withdrew from the war in early 1712.
Without their support, the other Allies were forced to make peace and the war ended with the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, followed by those of Rastatt and Baden in 1714. Phillip renounced the French throne and was confirmed as King of Spain, retaining Peninsular Spain and Spanish possessions outside Europe with their European territories divided between Austria, Britain and Savoy. Longer term impacts included Britain's emergence as the leading European maritime and commercial power, the decline of the Dutch Republic as a major European power, the creation of a centralized Spanish state and the acceleration of the break-up of the Holy Roman Empire.
Pierre, or Pieter, Mortier (1661-1711) was a Dutch engraver, son of a French refugee. He was born in Leiden. In 1690 he was granted a privilege to publish French maps in Dutch lands. In 1693 he released the first and accompanying volume of the Neptune Francois. The third followed in 1700. His son, Cornelis (1699-1783), would partner with Johannes Covens I, creating one of the most important map publishing companies of the eighteenth century.
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